Publications about Coccyx Pain, Tailbone Pain, by Dr. Patrick Foye, M.D

Dr. Foye has published extensively in the medical literature, including writing medical textbook chapters, original research articles published in peer-reviewed journals, various review articles, and an entire 272-page book specifically about tailbone pain.

Below is a partial list of these publications.

Selected references (re: coccyx pain) from the medical literature:

  1. Foye PM, et al. Successful injection for coccyx pain. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2006 Sep;85(9):783-4.
  2. Foye PM. Finding the cause of coccydynia (coccyx pain). J Bone Joint Surg [Br].  Published 1-18-07 online:
  3. Foye PM. Ganglion impar injection techniques for coccydynia (coccyx pain) and pelvic pain. Anesthesiology. 2007 May;106(5):1062-3.
  4. Foye PM. Coccydynia (Coccyx Pain) Caused by Chordoma. Int Orthop. 2007 Jun;31(3):427.
  5. Foye PM. New approaches to Ganglion Impar Blocks, via Coccygeal Joints. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 2007 May-Jun;32(3):269.
  6. Foye PM, Buttaci CJ. Coccyx Pain. In: Plantz SH, eMedicine: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. San Francisco: eMedicine; 2007.
  7. Foye PM. Reasons to Delay or Avoid Coccygectomy for Coccyx Pain. Injury. 2007 Nov;38(11):1328-1329. Epub 2007 Sep 19.
  8. Foye PM. Ganglion Impar Blocks for Chronic Pelvic and Coccyx Pain. Pain Physician. 2007 Nov;10(6):780-1.
  9. Buttaci CJ, Foye PM, Stitik TP. Coccydynia Successfully Treated with Ganglion Impar Blocks: A Case Series. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2005; 84(3):218.
  10. Liang CW, Foye PM, Sorenson MK. Low Incidence of Vascular Uptake in Ganglion Impar Injections for Coccydynia (Coccyx Pain). American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2007 Apr;86(4):S104.
  11. Rhee M, Foye PM, Tung D. Coccydynia (Coccyx Pain) due to Dynamic Instability of the Tailbone: A Case Report. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2007 Sep;88(9): E36.
  12. Foye PM, et al. Coccydynia (Coccyx Pain) after Colonoscopy. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2008 Mar;87(3): S36.
  13. Foye PM. A New Diagnostic Test for Coccyx Pain (Tailbone Pain): Seated MRI. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2008 Mar;87(3): S36.
  14. Foye PM. Safe ganglion Impar blocks for visceral and coccyx pain. Techniques in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Management. 2008 Apr;12(2):122-123.
  15. Foye PM. Ganglion Impar Blocks via Coccygeal versus Sacrococcygeal Joints. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 2008 May-Jun;33(3):279-80.
  16. Foye PM. Dextrose prolotherapy for recalcitrant coccygodynia fractures. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery (Hong Kong). 2008 Aug;16(2):270.
  17. Foye PM, et al. Cookie-Bite Coccyx- Retained Coccygeal Fragment after Coccygectomy. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2009 Mar;88(3): S56.
  18. Foye PM, et al. Coccyx Cushions for Tailbone Pain: Donut Cushions Versus Wedge Cushions. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2009 Mar;88(3): S56.
  19. Foye PM. Tailbone Pain (Coccydynia) Treated with Phenol Chemical Ablation of Somatic Nerves at the Posterior Coccyx. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2009 Mar;88(3): S56-57.
  20. Foye PM. Imaging Studies Detecting Retrorectal Tumors. Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology. 2009 Jan;20(1):81.
  21. Foye PM, Patel SL. Paracoccygeal Corkscrew Approach to Ganglion Impar Injections for Tailbone Pain. Pain Practice (the official journal of the World Institute of Pain). 2009 July-Aug;9(4):317-321
  22. Foye PM, Kamrava E, Enriquez R. Tailbone Pain Associated with a Keel-Shaped Coccyx: a Case Series. PM R, 2009 Sept;1(9):S176-S177.
  23. Foye PM, Kamrava E, Enriquez R. Tailbone Pain from Coccyx Injuries on Water Slides: a Case Series. PM R, 2009 Sept;1(9):S177.
  24. Foye PM, Enriquez R, Kamrava E. Seated MRI for Patients with Tailbone Pain: a Case Series. PM R, 2009 Sept;1(9):S223-S224.
  25. Foye PM, et al. Psychological versus Physical Pain Descriptors in Patients with Tailbone Pain. AJPMR, 2010 April;89(4):S32-3.
  26. Foye PM. Coccyx Pain Diagnostic Workup: Necessity of MRI in Detecting Malignancy Presenting with Tailbone Pain. AJPMR, 2010 April;89(4):S33.
  27. Foye PM, Stitik TP.  Diagnostic Ultrasound in a Patient with Tailbone Pain: Detecting Coccygeal Dislocation/Listhesis but Failing to Detect an Avulsion Fracture of the Coccyx. AJPMR, 2010 April;89(4):S33.
  28. Foye PM. Coccyx Pain and MRI: Precoccygeal epidermal inclusion cyst. Singapore Med J. 2010 May;51(5):450.
  29. Foye PM. Anal Nerve Risks with Paracoccygeal Lumbosacral Fixation. Surg Radiol Anat. Oct. 2010. 32(8):805.
  30. Foye PM. Stigma Against Patients with Coccyx Pain. Pain Med. 2010 Dec;11(12):1872.
  31. Foye PM. Causality of concomitant coccyx pain and lumbar pain. J Bone Joint Surg [Br]. 2010 Dec.
  32. Foye PM. Ganglion Impar Pulsed Radiofrequency for Coccyx Pain. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. April 2011. 41(4):e11-12.
  33. Foye PM, et al. Sit-To-Stand Exacerbation of Coccyx Pain As a Predictor of Coccygeal Dynamic Instability Versus Bone Spurs. Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 2011 April; 90(4):
  34. Lercher K, Foye PM. Heterotopic Ossification of the Coccyx as a Post-Operative Complication of Coccygectomy. Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 2011 April; 90(4): 87-88.
  35. Foye PM, et al. Local anesthetic injection L. Banana boat Tailbone Trauma: 100% Complete Listhesis, a Dynamic Dislocation. Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 2011 April; 90(4):a25.
  36. Foye PM, Kumar S. CT Morphology and Morphometry of the normal adult coccyx. Eur Spine J. March 2014; 23(3):701. PMID: 24292276.
  37. Foye PM, Vora MN. Sacrococcygeal cornua as zygapophysial joints. Anat Sci Int. 2014 Sep;89(4):266.
  38. Foye PM, Desai RD. MRI, CT scan, and dynamic radiographs for coccydynia. Joint Bone Spine. 2014 May;81(3):280. PMID: 24462128. (Also expected to be published in La Revue du Rhumatisme as well after translation into French.)
  39. Foye PM, et al. Coccyx fractures treated with intranasal calcitonin. Pain Physician. 2014 Mar-Apr;17(2):E229-33.
  40. Mehnert MJ, Shamim F, Foye PM. Coccygodynia. Chapter In: Simon J, Freedman M, Mehnert MJ. Interventional Spine Procedures – A Case Based Approach. (Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Ltd. Published 2014) ISBN-13: 978-9351521693  ISBN-10: 9351521699
  41. Foye PM. Tailbone Pain Relief Now! United States: Top Quality Publishing, 2015. Print (soft cover book, 272 pages). ISBN-13: 978-0996453509.
  42. Hsieh S, Hwang GE, Foye PM, Kumbar SV, Koon CT. Iatrogenic Coccydynia (Coccyx Pain) After Chiropractic Actuator Treatments: Case Report. WebmedCentral PAIN 2015;6(10):WMC004998.
  43. Foye PM. Coccydynia (coccygodynia). In: UpToDate, Post TW (Ed), UpToDate, Waltham, MA. (Published 12-15-15. Accessed on December 15, 2015.)
  44. Foye PM, Modi SS, Issac SM. Coccygectomy: worse outcomes for those with more severe preoperative pain and disability. Bone Joint J. Published 4/2016. Online:
  45. Foye PM, Kumbar S, Koon C. Improving Coccyx Radiographs in Emergency Departments. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2016 Oct;207(4):W77. PMID: 27383137. Also available online:
  46. Foye PM. Coccydynia: Tailbone Pain. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2017 Aug;28(3):539-549. Review Article. PMID: 28676363
  47. Foye PM. Tailbone Pain Relief Now! United States: Top Quality Publishing, 2017. Print (e-book, 274 pages). ISBN: 9780996453516.
  48. Foye PM, Shah JM, Sinha D. In: Kahn, SB., Xu RY (Eds.) Musculoskeletal Sports and Spine Disorders: A Comprehensive Guide. Chapter 102: Coccyx Fracture and Dislocation. Pages 461-464. Publisher: Springer. 2017.
  49. Foye PM, Kirschner J, Furman MB. In: Furman MB, Atlas of Image Guided Interventional Spinal Procedures. (Philadelphia: Elsevier, Published 2018.) Chapter 8: Ganglion Impar injections. Pages 146-158.
  50. Foye, PM, Shenouda M. In: Maigne J-Y, Doursounian L. (ed.) Coccyx Disorders. (Best Practice Publishing, 2018).  Papers from The First International Symposium on Coccyx Disorders. Chapter: Ganglion Impar (Walther) Sympathetic Nerve Procedures for Coccydynia. Pages 106-116. Online at:
  51. Foye PM, D’Onofrio GJ. Ganglion Impar Alcohol Ablation for Non-Malignant Coccyx Pain. Interventional Pain Management Reports. 2018: 2(2):79-80. PDF online at:
  52. Foye PM, D’Onofrio GJ. Intraoperative X-rays during coccygectomy. Pediatr Surg Int. 2018 Aug:34(8): 905. Online at: OR online at:
  53. Foye PM, Sajid N, D’Onofrio GJ. Ganglion impar injection approaches and outcomes for coccydynia. Indian J Radiol Imaging 2018;28:482-3. Available online:
  54. Foye PM, Abdelshahed DM, Kamrava E, Enriquez R, D’Onofrio GJ. Tailbone Pain from Coccyx Injuries on Water Slides: A Case Series. J Emerg Med. 2018 Aug;55(2):e33-e35. Available online here: (Accessed: 6-13-18)
  55. Foye PM, Sanapati JS, John A, Jow SL. Avascular Necrosis (AVN) of the Coccyx as a Cause of Coccydynia (Tailbone Pain). WebmedCentral PAIN 2018;9(8):WMC005505. Available online here:
  56. Foye PM, Bains M, Tangri V. Polymerase chain reaction of fistula drainage in sacrococcygeal tuberculosis. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2019 Jul 30;61:275. doi: 10.1016/j.ijscr.2019.07.057. Online: PMID: 31400732.
  57. Foye PM, Singh R, Tangri V. Cerebrospinal fluid leak after fracture of the sacrum or coccyx. Spine J. 2019 Dec;19(12):2044. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2019.07.018. PMID: 31759438.
  58. Foye PM, Nweke N, Singh R. Variability in Coccygeal Dynamic Mobility in Different Populations. Interv Neuroradiol. 2020;26(2):239. Published online 2019:
  59. Foye PM, Varghese CA, Singh R. Looking Below the Sacrococcygeal Joint in Patients with Coccydynia (Coccyx Pain). Indian Journal of Orthopaedics, 54(1), 104. Published in print 2/2020. IJOO.
  60. Foye PM, Woon J, Zheng K, Leong K. Low incidence of vascular uptake during ganglion impar sympathetic nerve blocks for coccydynia. Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging. April-June 2020;30(2): 181-183. DOI: 10.4103/ijri.IJRI_302_19

COME FOR RELIEF: For more information on coccyx pain, or to be evaluated in-person at Dr. Foye’s Coccyx Pain Center in the United States, go to:

– Patrick Foye, M.D., Director of the Tailbone Pain Center, New Jersey, United States.

Patrick Foye, M.D.
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